Our Blog

woman with toothache

4 Steps to Preventing Gum Disease

Preventing gum disease is important to overall dental health. According to the CDC, a majority of adults have some form of gingivitis. Gingivitis is the first sign of gum disease, and is the reason many adults end up losing their teeth. Gingivitis and gum disease can often be spotted by inflamed gums, which turn from pink to red and puffy, and may even bleed during brushing. If left untreated, plaque and tartar below the gumline can ultimately cause gum disease, which may lead to teeth falling out, and increase the risk of other serious health conditions including heart disease, stroke, diabetes, respiratory infections and premature birth. The good news it, gum disease is highly avoidable. Here are some helpful tips to keep in mind when it comes to preventing gum disease.

woman with toothache

Brush at the Gumline

Gingivitis starts at the gumline, which also happens to be the most neglected area when we brush. Be sure to place your brush at a 45-degree angle to your teeth so that half of your brush can clean your gums while the other half cleans your teeth.

Strengthen Your Bones

Just as the bones in the rest of your body can shrink and deteriorate, so can your jawbone. You can strengthen the bones of your body by exercising, refraining from smoking, and getting enough calcium, and the same is true of making sure your jawbone is healthy. Getting at least 800 milligrams of calcium a day can make your jaw stronger, help hold your teeth in place, and reduce your chances of developing gum disease. Think of your jawbone just as you would any other bone in your body. A healthy and balanced diet in general, supplemented by exercise, will go a long way toward preventing gum disease.

Get Plenty of Vitamin D

A study conducted by the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition found that people with higher levels of vitamin D in their system were 20% less likely to show signs of gingivitis. Vitamin D has been shown to have possible anti-inflammatory properties, which explains why it is often associated with reduced inflammation and gum bleeding.

Tongue Scraping

Tongue scraping is a great, easy method for preventing gum disease. Whether you choose to scrape with a small spoon, tongue depressor, or toothbrush, scraping can help remove the bacteria and toxins hiding on your tongue. You will probably need to scrape from back to front approximately 10 to 15 times to be sure you’ve done a thorough job.

If you suspect you may have symptoms of gingivitis or gum disease, and want a professional opinion, or simply want to be sure you’re adequately preventing gum disease, contact Central Florida Periodontics today for an appointment.

6 Reasons You Might Want to See a Periodontist to Prevent Periodontal Disease

Your gum health cannot be overestimated when it comes to your general health and wellbeing. When your gums are in distress, your whole body can feel the serious consequences. Periodontal disease afflicts nearly half of Americans aged 30 and over (almost one in every two people). When gum disease advances and oral bacteria enters your bloodstream, it can cause cardiovascular and respiratory issues, in addition to more obvious conditions like tooth loss. The good news is that most forms of periodontal disease easily can be treated if caught early enough. The key is knowing what to look for and scheduling an appointment with your trusted local periodontist before it’s too late.

Here are some important symptoms to watch out for, which may indicate the early stages of periodontal disease:

Sudden shift or change in bite

The gums around your teeth are designed to hold them in place, but periodontal disease can cause these gums and bones to weaken. The result is loose teeth and, eventually, the complete loss of the tooth. If you’ve noticed a sudden or gradual change in your bite, it could be a sign of eroding gums.

Bad breath

While there are many causes of bad breath, the odor is generally caused by bacteria in and around your teeth. Oftentimes, this bacteria can be the result of gum disease. To find out if periodontal disease is the underlying cause of your bad breath, make an appointment with your local periodontist.

Your gums are tender or bleeding

Healthy gums should be firm, pinkish in color, and should not bleed easily. Sore or inflamed gums while chewing or flossing are one of the earliest signs of periodontal disease, and should encourage you to get a professional evaluation.

Your gums appear to be receding

It can be difficult to notice a receding gumline, as it’s generally a gradual process that happens over time. However, one key indicator is that your teeth look longer than they did previously. It’s worth paying attention to, as it could be a cause for concern.

Your teeth feel more sensitive than usual

As your gums recede, the roots of your teeth become exposed. Since the roots do not have a protective enamel coating like the rest of your teeth, they are more sensitive to hot or cold liquids and foods. If you notice an uncomfortable sensation when eating particularly hot or cold foods, it’s worth taking note.

Preexisting conditions or unhealthy lifestyle

Pregnant women, tobacco users, and those with diabetes are a few examples of people who are at higher risk for periodontal disease. They should take extra precautions to fight gum disease, including regular visits to their dentist. 

It’s always better to be proactive than reactive. Don’t wait for the symptoms of periodontal disease to develop. Contact Central Florida Periodontics for a thorough dental evaluation today

dentist tools

What Is Periodontal Surgery: A Complete Guide

Whether you are looking for a new periodontist or simply trying to educate yourself before a procedure with your current surgeon, it can be helpful to brush up on what to expect. While many patients ask themselves “what is periodontal surgery?” before going in for a procedure, many don’t take the time to really learn the ins and outs of what surgery entails. Here are a few tips to go into your next appointment with a better idea of what’s involved.

Learn About Payment

Many patients are worried about, or have several questions concerning, the cost associated with their dental treatment. A good first step toward getting your questions answered is to give the periodontist’s front office a call. You will be able to ensure that they accept your insurance, get a good estimate of your out-of-pocket expenses. You might even be eligible for an extended payment plan.

dentist tools

Provide a Complete Medical History

It’s a common misconception that if a medical condition doesn’t affect your mouth, it’s not worth disclosing to your dental specialist. However, there are plenty of non-tooth-related conditions that are important for your dentist to know about, including a history of diabetes or existing pregnancy, both of which can put you at higher risk for gum disease. You should also relay any allergies or sensitivities you may have, as well as current medications you are taking (both over-the-counter and prescribed), including lifestyle information like drinking and smoking. This can help the dental staff make the most informed decision regarding your course of treatment.

Don’t be Afraid of the Dentist

If you have ever had a cavity or root infection, you might not be too eager to make a dental appointment anytime soon. Unfortunately, the longer you wait between visits, the higher your chances of gum disease and other painful dental conditions. Many patients don’t realize that the pain associated with many common tooth and gum conditions can be quickly relieved with just one visit to a dentist or oral health specialist. A good provider should always take your concerns under consideration, and make sure to answer all your questions before starting any procedures.

Always Schedule Your Next Appointments

Don’t wait until you have a dental issue to schedule your next appointment. Be proactive. If you wait too long, your teeth and gums might already be susceptible to serious problems, and more at risk for developing cavities or infections. Once the gums become infected due to a build-up of plaque and tartar, you have a higher chance of developing gingivitis or more advanced stages of periodontal disease. Most of these severe conditions, however, can be prevented or reversed by following good oral hygiene practices and scheduling regular dental appointments.

If you’ve noticed signs of periodontal disease, gum infection, or cavities, don’t hesitate to contact Central Florida Periodontics & Implantology today. We won’t leave you wondering, “what is periodontal surgery, anyway?” Our staff will give you all the information you need to know about your dental health.

dental procedure

Benefits of Receiving Laser Gum Surgery

If you find you suffer from periodontal disease, and it’s negatively affecting the quality of your daily life, or your job, you should speak to a professional about laser gum surgery. Luckily, Central Florida Periodontics & Implantology is a premier provider of laser gum surgery in Orlando, FL. The traditional method for removing infected areas from the gums has been to cut around them with a blade or scalpel. There were many risks inherent in this traditional form of gum surgery, from anesthesia complications to blood clots and other bleeding issues. With laser gum surgery, however, the patient has more peace of mind, knowing that the risks are far reduced or nonexistent. In laser gum surgery, a laser light is used to target and remove harmful bacteria and diseased gum tissue from around the teeth, as well as for cleaning the gum pockets.

dental procedure

No Need for Anesthesia

With traditional gum surgery, patients are usually given general anesthesia to relax their bodies and reduce any pain that might occur during the procedure. Since laser gum therapy works by pointing a light in affected areas of your mouth and gums, general anesthesia is not necessary. Instead, local anesthesia is used to numb the areas that might be affected. This tends to put many patients at ease, because general anesthesia carries the risk of serious complications, like a heart attack or stroke, and can add to patient anxiety before surgery.

Quicker Healing Time

With laser treatment, no bleeding also means no need for stitches. You are able to eat and speak faster than if you were to have traditional gum surgery—about 24 hours recovery time versus two to four weeks with scalpel and suture surgery—and patients are able to more quickly transition back to their daily lives. This often is one of the biggest deciding factors for patients who choose laser gum treatment, as they are eager to get back to work and resume their daily activities with minimal interruption.

Less Pain

It’s no surprise that when a blade is used to cut out larger portions of gum, due to gingivitis or periodontal disease, that sensitive gums are highly prone to pain. Perhaps not during surgery itself (thanks to anesthesia), but certainly afterward. Luckily, laser gum surgery is a less invasive option. Patients report far fewer cases of pain, and find the post-surgery process far smoother.

Less Tissue Removal

One of the most important advantages of laser gum surgery is its accuracy and precision when compared with more traditional methods. The goal is to keep as much healthy gum tissue as possible while only removing the diseased portions. This allows the periodontist to maintain your gum height, which not only looks more aesthetically pleasing, but also helps protect the roots of your teeth.

Taking these many benefits into account, it’s no surprise that more patients are opting for laser gum surgery. To have your dental needs addressed by the premier provider of laser gum surgery in Orlando, FL, contact Central Florida Periodontics & Implantology today to make an appointment.

tmj

How We Can Help with TMJ Disorder Prevention

TMJ is a pain in your jaw joint and the muscles that control jaw movement. When it first occurs, many patients simply wait for it to go away on its own, or try home remedies, but oftentimes the pain will persist and even get worse. As with any health issue, it’s always a good idea to see a professional like Central Florida Periodontics, who specializes in TMJ Disorder prevention.

What Is TMJ?

The temporomandibular joint is like a sliding hinge, connecting your jawbone to your skull. TMJ disorders can result in pain in your jaw joint, and in the muscles that control jaw movement. While the cause of TMJ is still unknown, scientists believe the symptoms can be attributed to problems in the jaw muscle or joints. Symptoms of TMJ generally include pain or tenderness of your jaw, pain in one or both of the temporomandibular joints, aching pain in and around your ear, and difficulty chewing or pain while chewing. TMJ disorders can also cause a clicking sound or grating sensation when you open your mouth or chew. Understanding the symptoms is important to understanding the condition, and being able to identify if you should see a periodontist for TMJ Disorder prevention.

tmj

Treatment

Sometime the symptoms of TMJ go away on their own, but it’s always a good idea to consult an experienced periodontist for an expert opinion. medical treatment may be required. Your doctor may fit you with a splint, or bite plate, that fits over your upper and lower teeth, designed to reduce clenching or grinding at night, and thereby ease muscle tension. Options such as cortisone shots are also considered an effective way to relieve inflammation and pain.

Here are some other procedures commonly used to treat TMJ.

Arthrocentesis 

This is a minimally invasive procedure involving the insertion of small needles into the joint, so fluid can be irrigated through the joint to remove debris and inflammatory byproducts. This often proves to be an effective way of alleviating the symptoms of TMJ.

TMJ arthroscopy

Arthroscopic surgery can sometimes be as effective for treating various types of TMJ disorders as open-joint surgery. This procedure involves a small thin tube being placed into the joint space and inserting an arthroscope. Though TMJ arthroscopy has a few limitations, there are also fewer risks and complications than open-joint surgery.

Modified condylotomy

Modified condylotomies address TMJ Disorder indirectly, with surgery on the mandible but not the joint itself. If locking is one of the primary symptoms, it can be very helpful for alleviating pain.

Open-joint surgery

If your symptoms do not resolve with more conservative treatments or home remedies, and your doctor believes a structural problem in the joint may be the culprit, open-joint surgery may be suggested to repair or replace the joint. This option does, however, involve more risks than other procedures, and should only be considered after a thorough discussion of the pros and cons.

If you’re looking to address the symptoms of TMJ Disorder, why not reach out to the periodontists who specialize in TMJ Disorder prevention? Contact Central Florida Periodontics to make an appointment today.

mouth X-ray

Periodontal Treatment Methods You Should Know About

We find that most of our patients don’t know a whole lot about the field of periodontics, and often come to us with a lot of questions and uncertainties. We want our patients to completely understand not only the services and benefits a periodontist can offer but also the periodontal treatment methods that they can expect. Here are some services and needs that are most prevalent among our clients.

mouth X-ray

Dental Implants

Dental implants are intended for patients who are missing one or more teeth. The process of receiving implants and attaching prosthetics typically takes six to eight months and takes two surgical procedures. During the first, implants are placed into the jawbone, while the second procedure occurs after healing and is geared toward maintenance; it will require the patient to wear temporary dentures and maintain a soft diet.

Bone Grafting

Bone grafting is a method of treatment used primarily to help patients who have experienced atrophy or deterioration of the jawbone. Bone grafting allows the periodontist to create a suitable jawbone width and length that can accommodate dental implants, and to maintain a pleasing aesthetic appearance. The bone grafting procedure involves obtaining donor bone from a tissue bank, synthetic bone material, or the patient’s own body, for use as a graft. This process helps dental implants look better, last longer, and require less long-term maintenance.

Laser Periodontal Therapy

This form of surgery is used to treat gum disease at every stage and can prove more beneficial than traditional gum surgery, which traditionally involves cutting and stitching the gums. Laser gum surgery is a popular periodontal treatment method, as it provides less bleeding and pain during and after the procedure. Laser technology also makes the procedure easier and more convenient for periodontists, as it allows them to focus on removing diseased and unhealthy tissue, and to more easily maintain the height of the gums around the teeth.

Bite Adjustment

There are several periodontal treatment methods often utilized for bite adjustment. An abnormal bite can cause the teeth or jaws to become damaged, and we specialize in helping patients return to a safe, healthy bite.

Tooth Reshaping

Tooth Reshaping is one method of adjusting a patient’s bite. This procedure involves the periodontist reshaping the surfaces of the teeth that make abnormal contact when biting. This reshaping helps reduce excessive pressure placed on the teeth and evenly distribute bite pressure across all teeth to minimize the risk of damage.

Bite Splints

Bite splints are plastic bite guards customized to suit each patient and keep their teeth apart. They can be used both during the day and night, and are a very simple method of realigning a patient’s bite.

Braces

Braces are probably the most common and well-known periodontal treatment methods for bite adjustment. Braces use physical pressure to shift the position of the teeth over time. Braces are usually metal or ceramic brackets that bond to the surface of the teeth and are tightened using wire.

For more information about the periodontal work we provide or to make an appointment, contact us today!

patient

Orlando Bone Grafting: When and Why You Might Need It

When you are missing one or several teeth, chances are you’re considering dental implants as part of your permanent tooth replacement solution. The field of implant dentistry today has been revolutionary in its ability to enable people to get their teeth replaced with greater precision and success than ever before. Nowadays, the question isn’t whether an implant can replace a tooth, but how long that implant will last, what will the tooth look and feel like after several weeks, several months, or several years after implementation? Bone grafting is the key to achieving the longevity you need in your dental implants, and when it comes to Orlando bone grafting, Central Florida Periodontics is your go-to periodontist.

patient

What is bone grafting?

For those who are missing one or more teeth, there’s no better aesthetic solution than dental implants. Dental implants serve the same function as regular teeth, and a successful implant is virtually undetectable. There are two pieces of a dental implant—a metal cylinder placed into the jaw bone, functioning like the root of the tooth, and an abutment that screws into the first piece. A crown is then placed on the abutment, creating the appearance of a tooth. Dental implants, however, cannot be truly successful on their own. Bone grafts involve taking a section of bone from another area of your body and and grafting it onto your jaw bone, and allow your jaw bone to be strong enough to support your dental implant.

Bone grafting is crucial in order to build up a bone-deficient area with graft volume, so the dental implant can function as designed. There are generally four types of bone grafts:  autografts, allografts, xenografts and synthetic. Usually, the donor bone is either from the same patient (obtained from a different area of the mouth) and functions as a scaffold and space holder, allowing for the replacement to be conducted using the patient’s own bone.

When is bone grafting necessary?

Because most people lose bone after a tooth is removed, bone grafting is often a necessity to ensure that dental implants go off without a hitch. Bone grafting is typically performed months before dental implant insertion, as the primary means of preserving the existing bone around the extraction socket, and promoting the formation of additional bone. One of the crucial factors in determining if bone grafting is necessary is whether there is enough bone to meet the specific structural, functional, and cosmetic demands placed upon the dental implant. These variables are different from patient to patient, and a professional periodontist will first conduct a thorough evaluation to determine the amount and density of bone.

For professional Orlando bone grafting, look no further than Central Florida Periodontics & Implantology. If you’re interested in learning more about bone grafting, or to make an appointment, reach out to us today.

tobacco use

The Link Between Tobacco and Gum Disease

If you are a smoker, you’re probably aware that tobacco is having a very visible effect on the outside appearance of your teeth – namely, that is causing your teeth to look yellow or even brown. While stained teeth can certainly impact your life (causing you to feel embarrassed or insecure about your smile), an even more serious cause for concern is the impact tobacco is having on what’s below the surface such as periodontal disease.

In addition to putting you at risk for various forms of cancers, lung conditions, and heart disease, tobacco use can also increase your risk of getting periodontal disease. More commonly known as gum disease, periodontitis is not something to be taken lightly or ignored. Advanced stages of gum disease can lead to permanent tooth loss among other grave health issues.

Keep reading to learn more about tobacco and its connection to periodontal disease, and get tips for keeping your teeth and mouth healthy.

tobacco use

How Tobacco Affects Your Gums

Whether you smoke, dip, chew, or vape, you are at a greater risk of periodontal disease as a tobacco user.

Why?

Tobacco is made up of various harmful chemicals including nicotine and tar. These toxic chemicals can irritate your gums, causing a buildup of bacteria. The bacteria eventually turns to plaque and tartar, which leads to gingivitis, the earliest form of gum disease. As gum disease advances, the infection causes the bones and tissues holding your teeth in place to deteriorate. If not treated early on, the end result is permanent tooth loss.

Why You Should Care

Everyone wants a white, sparkling smile but teeth and gums that are healthy from the inside-out are just as important. A study in the Journal of Periodontology claims periodontal disease is the leading reason for tooth loss. Strong teeth and gums are necessary for chewing, talking, and smiling. Losing them would not only have a negative impact on your day-to-day life, but it would put you at an increased risk for infections that can lead to cardiovascular disease, respiratory conditions, and more.

Tobacco has also been proven to weaken your immune system. This means that it is harder for your body to ward off gum infections and take you longer to heal once you have one. In fact, according to the CDC, smokers have twice the risk of gum disease compared with a nonsmoker.

How to Prevent Periodontal Disease if You’re a Tobacco User

The best way to keep your gums and teeth healthy is by practicing good oral hygiene. Thorough brushing and flossing using the correct form will help remove bacteria from around the teeth before plaque has a chance to form. You should also schedule regular teeth cleanings – at least two a year – and see a dentist or specialist like a periodontist at the first sign of any decay or infection.

Due to its proven link to oral health conditions, the best way to minimize your chances of getting gum disease is to quit smoking entirely. If that’s not an option, you should be especially mindful of your tooth and gum health.

Take the first step and schedule an appointment with one of our periodontal specialists today to have your gums evaluated and, if necessary, start a treatment plan.

shrugging woman

Are You a Good Candidate for Dental Implants?

People lose teeth every day for a wide variety of reasons: Advanced gum disease. Tooth decay. Falls and other types of collisions. Sports accidents. But ignoring the issue or opting not to replace the teeth can have serious effects on your oral health.

For many people, dental implants are a safe, durable, and natural way to replace their missing teeth. Unlike bridges and dentures, dental implants are a permanent solution that aren’t susceptible to decay. With excellent dental care, they can last up to a decade – or even longer!

Keep reading to learn more about this popular tooth replacement procedure and find out whether it’s a good fit for you.

shrugging woman

What Are Dental Implants?

First, let’s review some basic tooth anatomy. The flat or chiseled uppermost part of the tooth that is used for chewing is called the crown. The white surface that covers the tooth is called the enamel. Below the gumline (the pink, fleshy tissue that surrounds your teeth) is the root. The root is important because it holds the tooth in place. Like the root of a tree, it extends far beneath the gumline, actually making up about two-thirds of the tooth (Colgate).

Dental implants act as an artificial tooth root in people who have lost their teeth from gum disease or other causes. It is a small titanium post that is inserted into the jawbone and provides a strong foundation for the bridge, crown, denture, or other dental prosthesis. According to the American Academy of Implant Dentistry, “Replacement of lost teeth with dental implants has been used for treating missing teeth for more than 50 years and is recognized as an effective treatment choice.”

There are many benefits to dental implants. They do not need to be removed like conventional dentures and with good care they can last for many years. Since they are bonded to your jawbone, there is no risk of your implants slipping or sliding during talking or chewing. They also look and feel like your real teeth!

The Procedure

The process of getting dental implants and attaching prosthetics typically takes about six to eight months total. The first step is having the implants placed in (or, in the case of subperiosteal implants, above) the jawbone. As the implant site heals over the next three to six months, the jawbone will grow around the titanium post and create a solid bond.

Once the implant site has healed completely (your periodontist will schedule a check-up to see how your jaw is recovering), the prosthetic teeth can be created and attached to a small connector post. The type of prosthesis that is used will vary from case to case, but the end result is always teeth that look and feel like the real thing.

How to Know If You’re a Good Candidate for Dental Implants

You might be wondering, “Can anyone get dental implants?” While dental implants are a great and viable option for many people, this type of surgery is not right for everyone. While the procedure has a high rate of success, it does require a good amount of bone and healthy gums to hold the implant in place. Patients with underlying health issues including diabetes and heart disease, as well as smokers and people with poor oral hygiene, may not be good candidates for implants.

At Central Florida Periodontics and Implantology we ask that everyone considering dental implants undergo a special evaluation process to determine whether or not this procedure is right for them.

We know you have options when it comes to dental implants Orlando FL, so we hope you’ll consider Dr. Jeffrey Sevor and the expert team at Central Florida Periodontics and Implantology. If you still have questions and want to know whether or not dental implants are a good fit for you, reach out and let us know today!

dentist office

5 Things You Might Not Know About Periodontists

Everybody knows what a dentist is, but like any other medical profession, there are many specializations within the field of dentistry. If you’ve been looking for an Orlando periodontist or wondering what exactly they do, you’ve come to the right place! In today’s blog post we’ll cover the five things you might not already know about periodontists.

dentist office

Periodontists focus on the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of gum-related issues.

A periodontist receives an extra three years of training after dental school to become an expert in periodontal disease. A periodontist can help patients in any stage of gum disease and even provide preventative services for people who are at a greater risk of developing periodontal issues. They also practice the latest techniques for placing dental implants, which are artificial tooth roots that create a more natural looking (and feeling) foundation for prosthetic teeth.

Whether you have serious gum soreness or you’re just looking to get a deep teeth cleaning, a periodontist will be to assess your situation and help you get the treatment you need.

Most periodontists offer a wide range of treatments.

In addition to standard treatments for gum disease including dental implants, periodontists offer a wide range of other services. For patients who are unhappy with their smile because it is too gummy, gum reshaping and crown lengthening may be viable options. In some cases, a person will have lost bone and tissue due to advanced gum disease. Bone grafting procedures will help these necessary parts of the jaw to regenerate and regain functionality. You can read more about common periodontal procedures and their benefits on our website.

Anyone can see a periodontist.

You might think that you need a referral from your current dentist to see a specialist. But the truth is that anyone can see a periodontist! Whether you found us online or were referred by a friend or dentist, at Central Florida Periodontics and Implantology we will gladly see anyone who has an interest in having their gum health evaluated.

Surgery is not always necessary for the treatment of gum disease.

In many instances – especially the early, less severe forms of periodontal disease – surgery is not necessary to repair damage to the teeth and gums. Forms of non-surgical periodontal therapy include scaling and root planing. During scaling the teeth undergo a deep cleaning to remove plaque and tartar buildup (the leading causes of gum disease). Root planing is a process where the surfaces of the teeth are smoothed to prevent further buildup of these harmful substances.

Laser periodontal therapy is another alternative to traditional gum surgery. Orlando periodontist Dr. Jeffrey Sevor is the most experienced provider of this FDA-approved, patented laser gum treatment in the central Florida area. For patients who are a good candidate for this state-of-the-art procedure, laser therapy offers many benefits like less bleeding and a faster healing time than scalpel surgery.

A periodontist can help you make cosmetic changes to enhance the appearance of your smile.

Everyone deserves a confident, radiant smile. For people who feel their gums look overgrown or recessed, a periodontist can provide gum reshaping. Other cosmetic procedures include crown lengthening and ridge preservation to recreate the natural curvature of the jaw.

At Central Florida Periodontics and Implantology, we love helping our patients achieve a healthy smile that they can be proud of. Contact us to schedule your consultation with trusted Orlando periodontist Dr. Jeffrey Sevor today!